A 30-year-old woman with a history of PRS who presented for MR imaging evaluation for weakness and recurrent headaches. Conclusions Use bullets to list the points you want to make here. Inconsistency in content of literature review the pattern of atrophy and the development of associated symptoms in patients with Parry Romberg syndrome has made it challenging to diagnose, prognosticate, and treat. Los Angeles, CA: sage, 2012; Randolph, Justus. Works that support a particular position, those against, and those offering alternative approaches entirely, An explanation of how each work is similar to and how it varies from the others, Conclusions as to which pieces are best considered. C, Etiology of left ventriculomegaly and sulcal asymmetry was uncertain. Case Series Case. Received July 25, 2014. Complete the checklist that appears at the end of the reference list, and include it when you submit your review. Check to make sure the observed value of the effect is substantial (whatever that means-more about that in a moment). A, Axial CT image demonstrates striking focal loss of scalp thickness in the left frontal region.
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In addition to evaluating the extent of disease, radiologic assessments content of literature review may also facilitate the exclusion of other differential considerations, help monitor disease progression, and evaluate posttreatment responses. In the middle are techniques with uncertain precision and questionnaires with open-ended responses. As a reviewer you therefore have to come to terms with statistical significance. Confidence limits are appearing more frequently in publications, but most authors still use statistical significance. 3 6, 8 10, 20, 25 Seemingly without cause, the progression abruptly arrests and stabilizes, reaching a burned-out phase.
A, 3D reconstructions of a CT series show osseous asymmetry, most prominently in the left maxilla. 15 In general, treatment goals are to obtain seizure control if seizures are present, provide symptomatic relief, and halt disease progression. CT and MR imaging examinations revealed hemiatrophy most prominently involving left-sided skin and subcutaneous fat, with lesser involvement of the muscles of mastication ( Fig 2 A ). Value - are the author's arguments and conclusions convincing? Axial CT images of a 44-year-old woman with PRS obtained for cosmetic surgical planning. For instance, you could order a review of literature on environmental studies of brown fields if the progression revealed, for example, a change in the soil collection practices of the researchers who wrote and/or conducted the studies. The maxillary sinus, ethmoidal air cells, mandible, and osseous orbit were relatively smaller on the left ( Fig 4 C ). 7 We present 7 cases of PRS to illustrate its wide variety of extracranial and intracranial imaging findings, along with a discussion of the clinical course, differential diagnoses, and treatment options. Ways to Organize Your Literature Review. Bars are standard deviations. To learn more about literature reviews, take a look at our workshop content of literature review on Writing Literature Reviews of Published Research. MR imaging demonstrated near-absence of subcutaneous fat involving the inframaxillary face extending inferiorly to the visualized portions of the suprahyoid neck ( Fig 3 A ).
Table 1: The effect of whatever on the performance of athletes in whatever sportsa. Similar manifestations involving the trunk and extremities are even rarer. An 11-year-old girl with a known diagnosis of PRS of unknown duration was experiencing increasing dermal sensitivity and tightness of the left hemiface and occasional pain along the left temple for the past year. Abbreviation: PRS, parry Romberg syndrome, initially described by Drs Caleb Hillier Parry and Moritiz Heinrich Romberg in 18, respectively, 24, parry Romberg syndrome (PRS also known as progressive facial hemiatrophy, is a rare, insidious, and self-limiting hemiatrophy of the face. CT revealed soft-tissue atrophy and osseous asymmetry most prominently in the left maxilla ( Fig 4 A with extension to the left frontal scalp superiorly and left mandible inferiorly. A methodological scope will influence either the types of documents in the review or the way in which these documents are discussed. By Publication, order your sources by publication chronology, then, only if the order demonstrates a more important trend. C, Axial bone window demonstrates marked asymmetry in the volume of ethmoidal air cells. 23, 24 In these incidences, objective serial volumetric analysis of both hemifaces is important to monitor fat reabsorption, an indicator of successful grafting. Intracranial involvement is best evaluated with MR imaging and can range widely, with the most common findings being parenchymal calcifications, white matter abnormalities, and brain atrophy. There was atrophy of the right platysma and muscles of mastication, with substantial asymmetry in the size of the parotid gland ( Fig 1 A ).
Literature Review - Organizing Your Social Sciences
If you intend to submit a review to Sportscience, you should download the template from the Information for Authors page at the Sportscience site. University College Writing Centre. Limited evaluation of intracranial content revealed no abnormality. PRS shares many clinical features, such as age of onset, associated neurologic symptoms, and cutaneous presentations with en coup de sabre, a rare variant of linear scleroderma that occurs along the anterior aspect of the scalp. The fact that something has been published does not mean the findings are automatically trustworthy. So if a result is statistically significant, it will probably have widely separated confidence limits. 1 3, 5 8, Currently, the strongest laboratory and histologic evidence supports an inflammatory autoimmune disorder with or without associated vasculopathy., 12, 14, 15, 17 Clinical improvement with immunosuppressive therapy during active disease further supports an underlying immunologic-mediated process. Literature search - finding materials relevant to the subject being explored.
MR imaging demonstrated increased T2 signal in the left hemispheric white matter. Table 2: Events in the development of whatever in whatever sportsa. If the researchers do not report confidence limits, you can calculate them from the p value. Primary historical material, case studies, narratives, statistics, recent scientific findings? C, Marked right enophthalmos is present.
A and B, Axial T1-weighted MR images demonstrate left hemifacial atrophy primarily involving the skin and subcutaneous fat; only subtle asymmetry of the masseter is noted. Was the sample size appropriate? Data evaluation - determining which literature makes a significant contribution to the understanding of the topic. In other words, a complete understanding the research problem requires you to deliberately examine how knowledge and perspectives have changed over time. Noncontrast head CT demonstrated marked thinning of the left frontal scalp similar to an en coup de sabre deformity ( Fig 7 A ). A Guide to Writing the Dissertation Literature Review." Practical Assessment, Research, and Evaluation. Enophthalmos of the left globe was present with relative paucity of retrobulbar fat ( Fig 2 C content of literature review ).
Some of content of literature review the better reviews attempt to pull together the results of many papers using the statistical technique of meta-analysis. Establish the writers reason (point of view) for reviewing the literature; explain the criteria to be used in analyzing and comparing literature and the organization of the review (sequence and, when necessary, state why certain literature is or is not included (scope). Asymmetric left ventriculomegaly and a relatively small ipsilateral sulcal size ( Fig 4 C ) were present and suggested hydrocephalus, but their etiology remained unexplained. How subjects were sampled is an important issue. Volumetric calculations can be easily achieved with 3D reconstructions of CT data acquired periprocedurally and on serial follow-up examinations, but alternative methods are being investigated as well due to concerns for cost and patient radiation exposure. Liberty University; Literature Reviews. The bibliography or reference section of sources you've already read are also excellent entry points into your own research. An effect is also known as an outcome.
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For example: "A search for overtrain* produced 774 references, which reduced to 559 when we limited the search to intermediate or advanced levels ( not lebasic ). 16 Patients characteristically experience content of literature review atrophy of the skin and subcutaneous tissues and may develop atrophy of the underlying muscular, cartilaginous, osseous, and glandular structures as the disease progresses., 20 The affected area typically begins in the maxillary or periorbital. Statistical significance is notoriously difficult to understand, whereas confidence limits are at once more simple and more informative. Conducting Research Literature Reviews: From the Internet to Paper. The type of information you choose to mention should relate directly to the research problem, whether it is thematic, methodological, or chronological.
You can also use this method to explore what is considered by scholars to be a "hot topic" and what is not. The structure of a literature review should include the following : An overview of the subject, issue, or theory under consideration, along with the objectives of the literature review, Division of works under review into themes or categories.g. An effect is simply an observed relationship between variables in a sample of subjects. Link your ideas into a sensible sequence without repetitions or discontinuities. Keep Your Own Voice While the literature review presents others' ideas, your voice the writer's should remain front and center. Do not use extensive"s as a substitute for your own summary and interpretation of the literature. 1 Less frequently described imaging findings include the loss of cortical gyration, cortical thickening, ventricular dilation, focal corpus callosum infarcts, leptomeningeal thickening and contrast enhancement, attenuated mineral deposits, hamartomas, and MR signal abnormality involving the thalamus or gray matter. Define and justify the scope of the review: why you are limiting it to certain sports, why you are including studies of non-athletes and non-human species, and. Whether you use the statistical or the practical approach, you must apply it to the confidence limits as well as the observed effect. SportA 1947 US National Association formed 1956 Whatever 1968 SportB aPut any footnotes here. A 24-year-old man with progressive hemiatrophy of the left lower face and left facial nerve dysfunction during the past 3 years presented for imaging evaluation of symptoms. The critical evaluation of each work should consider : Provenance - what are the author's credentials? B and C, Axial flair images demonstrate abnormal hyperintensity of the white matter in the right corona radiata, internal capsule, and temporal region.
I have extended Cohen's scale to effects of content of literature review any magnitude, and I have made adjustments to his scale ( Hopkins, 1998b ). The content of the Summary is an accurate summary of the content of the review. 30 No standard treatment algorithm currently exists for PRS, 12, 17 especially given that response to treatment is difficult to assess. No intracranial imaging findings were observed at the time of presentation. For example, a book surveying the history of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict may include a chapter on the role Egypt has played in mediating the conflict, or look in the index for the pages where Egypt is mentioned in the text. Here are a few suggestions on how to cope. A 14-year-old boy presented with progressive atrophy of the left side of the face. See my statistics pages for explanations of these concepts (. Evaluate the current state of the art for the body of knowledge reviewed, pointing out major methodological flaws or gaps in research, inconsistencies in theory and findings, and areas or issues pertinent to future study.
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We read 47 of these as full papers. There are two approaches: statistical and practical. For example, Cohen (1988) claims that an effect size.2, a variance explained of 1 (equivalent to a correlation coefficient.1 and a relative risk.2 are the smallest effects worth detecting. The Literature Review: A Step-by-Step Guide for Students. 10, 25, 26 These 2 entities are commonly discussed in conjunction due to their overlapping presentations and lack of distinguishing clinical features. C, T2-weighted image at the same level demonstrates normal T2 signal in the affected structures. Least-squares lines are shown for each variable. 2 6, 8 10, This peculiar disease course, along with highly variable signs and symptoms, impedes consistent understanding of the underlying pathophysiology of PRS. A review organized in this manner would shift between time periods within each section according to the point made. No brain imaging was performed. An 11-year-old girl with left-face sensitivity and left-temple pain. In the statistical approach, effects or outcomes are expressed as statistics that are independent of the units of measurement of the original variables.
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1, 4, 7, 8, 27, 28 Other diseases in which facial asymmetry is a prominent clinical feature include hemifacial microsomia (first and second brachial arch syndrome) and Goldenhar syndrome, but unlike PRS, these conditions are typically congenital and nonprogressive. Other Sections of Your Literature Review Once you've decided on the organizational method for your literature review, the sections you need to include in the paper should be easy to figure out because they arise from your organizational strategy. B, Axial flair images demonstrate confluent signal abnormality in the high left frontal and parietal white matter. Acknowledgments List the people who helped you and what they did. Accepted after revision January 11, 2015. Our first 4 patients underwent scanning for evaluation of facial findings. 15 Intracranially, the most common findings are the following: 1) ipsilateral linear or discrete subcortical calcifications in the frontal lobe, 2) white matter hypoattentuation on CT corresponding to hyperintense T2 signal on MR imaging, 1 3, 7 10, and 3) ipsilateral. This approach should only be followed if a clear path of research building on previous research can be identified and that these trends follow a clear chronological order of development.
American Journal of Neuroradiology July 2015, 36 (7) ; DOI: Abstract, summary: Parry Romberg syndrome is a rare progressive hemiatrophy of the face that typically occurs in children and young adults and has a peculiar progression that ceases without apparent. Recapitulate important features of a research study, but then synthesize it by rephrasing the study's significance and relating it to your own work. There was deviation of the nose toward the side of atrophy ( Fig 4 B ). Figure 2: Informative title for a scattergram. (1997) female club runners whatever whoever Sport2 aNumber footnotes as shown.
3, 16, 17, 25, 26 PRS also shares features with Rasmussen encephalitis, an autoimmune/inflammatory disorder affecting 1 side of the brain, resulting in refractory epilepsy and progressive hemiplegia and typically affecting children in the first decade of life. A 44-year-old woman with known right-sided PRS underwent CT for the evaluation of disease extent and cosmetic surgical planning. It characteristically involves the skin and subcutaneous connective tissues and may later progress to affect the underlying musculature, cartilage, and osseous structures with or without development of neurologic symptoms., 23,. Your interpretation of the available sources must be backed up with evidence citations that demonstrates that what you are saying is valid. Use"s Sparingly Some short"s are okay if you want to emphasize a point, or if what an author stated cannot be easily paraphrased. An effect is statistically significant if the likely range of the true value of the effect is unlikely to include the zero or null effect. History : the chronological progression of the field, the literature, or an idea that is necessary to understand the literature review, if the body of the literature review is not already a chronology. Los Angeles, CA: sage, 2016; Ridley, Diana. One patient demonstrated a striking pattern of innumerable foci of susceptibility in the ipsilateral brainthese may represent microhemorrhages or foci of mineralization. The confidence limits of an effect define the likely range of the true value of the effect: in short, how big or positive and how small or negative the effect could.
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Related items that provide additional information but that are not key to understanding the research problem can be included in a list of further readings. Here are examples of other sections you may need to include depending on the type of review you write: Current Situation : information necessary to understand the topic or focus of the literature review. 1, 2, 12, 15 17 Many theories have developed during the years in an attempt to explain this peculiar disease. D, Axial susceptibility-weighted image demonstrates innumerable punctate foci of susceptibility throughout the right cerebral hemisphere. You have read the article on style. The outcomes in such reviews are usually expressed as relative risk, variance explained, or effect size, terms that you will have to understand and interpret in your review if you meet them. MR imaging demonstrated findings consistent with right MCA acute infarction (not shown). Paste figures and tables into the document after the paragraph where you first refer to them. 14, 27, 28 On imaging, Rasmussen encephalitis is characterized by predominately unilateral hemispheric areas of hyperintense T2 signal with eventual development of unilateral cerebral atrophy, 27, 28 findings that may be indistinguishable from intracranial imaging features of PRS. 19, 21, 22 Hemifacial hyperplasia causes asymmetry of the face as well, but rather than atrophy, this entity is characterized by overgrowth and hyperplasia. Problems of interpretation arise when researchers get a statistically non -significant effect. Even when paraphrasing an authors work, you still must provide a citation to that work. A, There is prominent hemiatrophy of the skin, subcutaneous fat, and masseter muscle.
C, T1-weighted image at the level of the orbits reveals left enophthalmos. And what about large effects, small effects, and trivial effects? The following collection of annotated sample literature reviews written and co-written by colleagues associated with UW-Madison showcases how these reviews can do different kind of work for different purposes. 1999 Webmastered by Will Hopkins Published March 1999. A new view of statistics. Persuasiveness - which of the author's theses are most convincing or least convincing? 2, 3, 7, 13, 15 17 Vascular abnormalities such as microhemorrhages, malformations, stenoses, and aneurysms have also been reported in association with PRS. In the conclusion, you should: Summarize major contributions of significant studies and articles to the body of knowledge under review, maintaining the focus established in the introduction. Figure 4: Informative title for an outcomes figure. Involvement was geographic, with regional areas of confluent periventricular, deep, and subcortical white matter hyperintensity ( Fig 6 ). Because you want to describe how big or how small the effect could be in reality, not just how big or small it was in the sample that was studied.
Parry Romberg Syndrome: 7 Cases and Literature Review
Is contrary data considered or is certain pertinent information ignored to prove the author's point? The Summary is no longer than 300 words (including the subheading words). (In other journals tables and figures go at the end of the manuscript.) Figure 1: Informative title for a time seriesa. What other sections you include in the body is up to you but include only what is necessary for the reader to locate your study within the larger scholarship framework. So whenever you see a result that is not statistically significant, ignore what the author concludes and look at the size of the effect in question: if the effect is nearly zero and the sample size is reasonable, chances are. Here are the main points from that article: Avoid content of literature review technical terms. CT demonstrated thinning of the skin and subcutaneous fat of the right side of the face extending inferiorly to the suprahyoid neck. Writing Your Literature Review Once you've settled on how to organize your literature review, you're ready to write each section. 23, 24 In summary, PRS is a rare, self-limiting, and slowly progressive hemiatrophy of the face that typically affects the skin and subcutaneous tissues and may affect deeper tissues such as the musculature, cartilage, and osseous structures. At one extreme are qualitative methods, in which the researcher interviews subjects without using formal psychometric instruments (questionnaires).
Selection Methods : the criteria you used to select (and perhaps exclude) sources in your literature review. The role of the radiologist content of literature review in diagnosis and management is emphasized. Use the first person (I, we) rather than the passive voice. Objectivity - is the author's perspective even-handed or prejudicial? If the observed effect is not substantial-a rare occurrence for a statistically significant effect, because it means the sample size was too large-you can actually conclude that the true value of the effect is likely to be trivial, even though it was statistically significant! There are big differences in the way data can be collected. In most studies in our discipline, sample sizes are smaller than they ought. The conclusions may also be biased by the prejudices of the researcher-interviewer. Guidelines on style for scientific writing. List substantial sources of funding for the project. B, Axial CT image at soft-tissue windows demonstrates deviation of the nose toward the affected side. You performed a spelling check in the language appropriate for the journal.
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In the practical approach, you look at the size of the effect and try to decide whether, for example, it would make any difference to an athlete's position in a competition. 3 Proposed etiologies have included trauma, genetic predisposition, infection, radiation exposure, content of literature review embryonic developmental dysfunction, sympathetic cervical ganglion dysfunction, and metabolic and endocrinologic disturbances. You can also review the indexes of books to find references to specific issues that can serve as the focus of your research. On flair and T2-weighted images, increased signal was present in the ipsilateral subinsular, temporal, and occipital lobe white matter and in the cerebral peduncle ( Fig 5 B, - C ). Summarize and Synthesize Remember to summarize and synthesize your sources within each thematic paragraph as well as throughout the review. 21, 22 On the other hand, PRS demonstrates little-to-no sclerosis of the cutaneous and subcutaneous structures, variable perivascular chronic inflammation, and preservation of dermal elastic tissue on histopathologic examinations, differentiating it from the spectrum of scleroderma diseases. For the Internet in American presidential politics project, one methodological approach would be to look at cultural differences between the portrayal of American presidents on American, British, and French websites. But in either case, a bigger sample is required to be sure about what is going. London: sage, 2011; Literature Review Handout. If it is, then you can conclude safely that the true value of the effect is likely to be a substantial. Ml#calculate : Internet Society for Sportscience Hopkins WG (1999). Neurologic and ophthalmologic symptoms are common, but underlying pathophysiology remains uncertain. No dedicated intracranial imaging was performed.
What is a review of literature? Thematic conceptual categories, thematic reviews of literature are organized around a topic or issue, rather than the progression of time. Figure 3: Informative title for a bar graph. Something that enhances performance in young or untrained individuals may not work so well in highly trained athletes, who may have less content of literature review headroom for improvement. Roughly speaking, statistically significant effects are unlikely to be zero, but such a rough interpretation is misleading: in sport and exercise science, the true value of an effect is never exactly zero. 10, 23, 24 Recently, autologous fat grafting with adipose-derived stem cells has been shown to provide the most favorable cosmetic results. I have identified four themes for this section: assessing the quality of published work; interpreting effects; points of grammar and style; and a few remarks about tables and figures.
Or the review might focus on the fundraising impact of the Internet on a particular political party. Doing a Literature Review: Releasing the Social Science Research Imagination. Be wary of generalizing results from novice athletes to elites. Homer catalog for books about the topic and review the table of contents for chapters that focuses on specific issues. You can also use this article to structure a literature review for a thesis, but check with your supervisor for any special requirements. At the other extreme are quantitative methods, in which biological or behavioral variables are measured with instruments or techniques of known validity and reliability. Use Caution When Paraphrasing When paraphrasing a source that is not your own, be sure to represent the author's information or opinions accurately and in your own words. Writing the body, in the body, you should: Group research studies and other types of literature (reviews, theoretical articles, case studies, etc.) according to common denominators such as qualitative versus quantitative approaches, conclusions of authors, specific purpose or objective, chronology, etc. You should also try to include a graph or diagram from a paper, or draw one yourself, to liven up the appearance of the review. Sources in your literature review do not clearly relate to the research problem; You do not take sufficient time to define and identify the most relevent sources to use in the literature review related to the research problem; Relies exclusively. The remaining 3 patients with known diagnoses of PRS underwent dedicated brain imaging to evaluate neurologic symptoms; all had substantial intracranial manifestations with white matter signal abnormality ipsilateral to the side of facial atrophy being a consistent finding. You may wish to use bullets to list the items. Chronology of Events, if your review follows the chronological method, you could write about the materials according to when they were published.
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Roughly how many sources should I include? 5, 8, 10, Once the disease stabilizes, cosmetic therapies, including pulse dye lasers, dermal fat grafts, autologous fat grafts, muscle flap grafts, free silicone injections, and bone augmentations, are available for aesthetic management. Los Angeles, CA: Sage Publications, 2016; Taylor, Dena. 15 Onset typically occurs during the first and second decades of content of literature review life, resulting in an initially insidious but progressive hemiatrophy of the face during a span of 220 years, with a slight propensity for the left side. Use Evidence A literature review section is, in this sense, just like any other academic research paper. Authors of small-scale studies who do not understand this point will interpret a statistically non-significant effect incorrectly as evidence for no effect. Quality of Published Work, look critically at any published work.
In other words, a chronological review would have subsections for each vital time period; a thematic review would have subtopics based upon factors that relate to the theme or issue. Quantitative data collection is more objective, but for some projects it could miss important issues that would surface in an interview. Examples are shown in Table 1 and Table. Enophthalmos is common due to atrophy of the retrobulbar fat 2, 6, 15 17 ; other potential orbital abnormalities include uveitis and retinal or optic nerve alterations. Sometimes the research may have been done: for example, moderate but non-significant effects in several studies probably add up to a moderate real effect, if the designs are trustworthy. 1 3, 5, 8, 9, Ophthalmologic symptoms occur in 1035 of patients and usually involve the ipsilateral orbit. Avoid common errors of punctuation and grammar. Should I summarize, synthesize, or critique sources by discussing a common theme or issue? Literature, in this short section you should list how many of each kind of publication you summarized (for example, 31 original investigations, one monograph, five reviews, four popular articles, one manuscript and how you found them (for example, a search of the sport-science database SportDiscus). Sportscience 3(1 ml (4397 words) Hopkins WG (1999b). Skeletal findings were most pronounced in the mandible ( Fig 2 B ).
Bars are 95 confidence intervals. 5, 6, 8, 9, Other reported neurologic symptoms include trigeminal neuritis, facial paresthesia, cranial nerve dysfunction, fixed focal neurologic defects, hemiparesis, and cognitive impairment. This approach is the better one for most studies of athletes. Confidence limits and statistical significance are involved in generalizing from the observed value of an effect to the true value of the effect. Background, this article is written in the form of a literature review for the journal Sportscience. References There is a wide variety of styles for citing and listing references.