We demonstrate the usefulness of this model by evaluating the forecasting performance of Value-at-Risk and Expected Shortfall for high-minus-low portfolios. Read the subheadings within the article, book, or report and look for a description of the research "methodology." Ask yourself: Could I recreate this study and test these results? The data needed for the research can be collected from primary data sources and secondary data sources. The aim of this research is to investigate the effectiveness of advertising marketing strategies available to small businesses in Nigeria, and a critical analysis of the advertising strategies use. Description of the process used to study this population or phenomena, including selection criteria, controls, and testing instruments (such as surveys).
Empirical Research: Definition and Examples - Write a Writing
This form of research is normally often sought by enterprises looking for a sophisticated method of collecting information with the what is a quantitative empirical essay appearance of scientific neutrality or impartiality. Empirical research is based on observed and measured phenomena and derives knowledge from actual experience rather than from theory or belief. Interviewing is a method of collecting data from respondents which demands real interaction between the researcher and the respondents (Pervez and Kjell, 2002). Quanlitative Research Qualitative research methods have been linked with positivism. However, a data collection approach using questionnaires has the merits of anonymity, wide geographical coverage, and multiple channel of administering (personally, by mail or electronically) with the ability to clarify doubts, though respondents may not be willing to complete. However, Bryman, (2004) concluded that qualitative research can be construed as a research strategy that usually emphasizes words rather than quantification in the collection and analysis of data that predominantly emphasizes an inductive approach to the relationship between. Smith and Dainty, (1991) It encompasses the processes of inquiry, investigation, examination and experimentation Sekaran, (2003).
According to (Hussey and Hussey 1997, p, 161; Dana, 2006, p,788). Speziale and Carpenter (2007.389) states that this approach contributes to the completeness and confirmation of findings necessary in the research process. We demonstrate the statistical significance what is a quantitative empirical essay of dynamic asymmetric copula models in modeling and forecasting market risk. Chapter Two investigates the dynamic and asymmetric dependence structure between equity portfolios from the US and. Qualitative research is inductive and researchers rarely know the specifics of data analysis when they begin a project (Neuman, 2006). Citing Bryman (1988 Silverman (2006) opines that the quantitative social science research may be carried out through any one or a combination of the following five methods illustrated in Table.1. Find a scale and get your exact height and weight.
The researchers true identity is not known to the group. Results: sometimes called "findings" - what was learned through the study - usually appears as statistical data or as substantial"tions from research participants. (Points will be deducted if not submitted in word format). However, Bryman(2005) share similar view with Creswell (2009) by positing that research is of three types: quantitative research which entails the collection of numerical data; qualitative research which is concerned with words, and mixed methods research which is a combinative. Other features of quantitative research includes the operationalisation of concepts to ensure clarity of definition, the researchers independence of what is been researched and the necessity to select samples of sufficient size in order to generalise conclusions. How long will you live? This is not an example of the work produced by our. Partial credit is not given for any assignment. Quantitative empirical, essay : Within the semester, you will submit. Smith and Dainty, (1991) Basic objective research- This research is involved with tackling a general problem of the application of knowledge which can arise in many contexts but does not aim to solve a particular practical problem.
Empirical essays in quantitative risk management - Enlighten
Second, we consider a dynamic asymmetric copula model by combining the generalized hyperbolic skewed t copula with the generalized autoregressive score (GAS) model to capture both the multivariate non-normality and the dynamic and asymmetric dependence between equity portfolios. Keywords: Copulas, dependence structure, asymmetry, time-varying dependence, hyperbolic generalized skewed t copula, generalized autoregressive score, market risk, portfolio optimization, credit risk, joint probability of default, conditional probability of default. Fielding and Schreier (2001) cited Shanks assertion that qualitative research is the systematic empirical inquiry into meaning (Fielding and Schreirer, 2001). We find substantial evidence of dynamic and asymmetric dependence between characteristic-sorted portfolios. Interviews can be structured, semi-structured or unstructured in approach. First, we find striking evidence for the existence of time-varying and asymmetric dependence between equity and currency. However, there are four roles the participant observer can adopt in gathering field observational data (Saunders, 2004). However, the researchers choice of method will depend upon the research problem, the research design and the purpose for the research (Pervez and Kjell, 2002). Colleges/Schools: College of Social Sciences Adam Smith Business School Economics. Table.1: Methods of Quantitative Research Method Features Advantages Social Survey Random samples Measured variables Representative Tests hypotheses Experiment Experimental stimulus and control group not exposed to stimulus Precise measurement Official statistics Analysis of previously collected data Large datasets Structured observation Observations. However, Uma (2003) defines research as an organized, systematic, critical, objective and scientific inquiry or investigation into a specific problem, undertaken with the purpose of finding answers or solutions.
What is Empirical Research?
Qualitative and quantitative methods are two major approaches for conducting research. During the discussion sessions, the moderator records responses by taking notes or using the tape recorder, for subsequent transcription. The interview approach (telephone and face-to-face) has the merit of been capable of establishing rapport and motivating respondents with greater anonymity, though respondents may be concerned about confidentiality of information given (Bryman,2004). Any opinions, findings, conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of UK Essays. Documents have the advantage of enabling the researcher to obtain data in the language and words of participants and saves the researcher time and cost of transcribing, though the materials may be incomplete, not authentic or accurate (Creswell, 2009). Survey design is used to make inferences about certain characteristics, and to make claims about the study population. Log into the following Assessment web sites: BMI assignment m, hip to Waist Ratio karvonen Formula. Discussion: sometimes called "conclusion" or "implications" - why the study is important - usually describes how the research results influence professional practices or future studies. It is particularly useful in providing detailed descriptions of phenomena and filling in the gaps left by the use of one research method.
After completing all website assignments, you will create a 500 word essay explaining your results and how this affects your health now and into the future. Participant as Observant: Here, the researchers role is revealed; both the researcher and those been observed are aware of the fact that it is a fieldwork relationship. Smith and Dainty (1991 futher states that there are a number of different approaches to research but there is a sharp contrast between those approaches aimed at purely academic or theoretical problems and, those concerned more with the day-to-day difficulties of (marketing) management in practice. Smith and Dainty, (1991) Evaluation research- Here, the research seeks to provide an assessment of some aspect of the performance of an enterprise. Though interviews are often considered the best data collection methods, its complexities are often underestimated (Pervez and Kjell, 2002). The multivariate asymmetry is captured by the skewed t copula derived from the mutlivariate skewed t distribution in Bauwens and Laurent (2005) and the time-varying dependence is captured by the GAS dynamics proposed by Creal.
Through calculating these formulas, you will understand your personal health and fitness through quantitative and empirical analysis of your specific data. Hence, Gilbert (2008) noted that qualitative research is a research that aims to investigate and analyze specific problems by describing scenes, gathering data through interviews, or analyzing the meaning of documents. Qualitative research is conducted through an intense and, or prolonged contact with a field or life situation (Groat and Wang 2002; Amarantunga et al, 2002). 3.5 research strategy/ design Turning back to research strategy / design, it involves the techniques used in gathering valid and reliable data for investigation in order to make useful analysis and evaluation of the research questions or hypotheses (Asika 2002). According to Uma (2003 people can be observed in their natural work environment or in the lab setting, and their activities and behaviors or other items of interest can be noted and recorded. Questionnaires: Asika (2002) opines that a questionnaire consists of a set of questions designed to gather information / data for analysis and the results of this is then used to answer the research questions or to test the relevant hypothesis. This hypothesis can then be tested in the course of the design of an appropriate research strategy including suitable methods of data collection in order to assess the validity of the hypothesis. The first chapter of this thesis provides a comprehensive review of recent developments of copula models and some important applications in the large and growing finance and economics literature. Saunders et al (2003) share similar view with Uma (2003) and by defining research as something that people undertake in order to find out things in a systematic way. Smith and Dainty, (1991) Action research- This refers to a form of research where, action is both an outcome of the research and a part of the research process. We document asymmetric and time-varying features of dependence between the credit risk of UK top tier banks using a new CDS dataset. Though the questions may be closed ended or open ended which are relatively cheap in administering, and are less time consuming, the choice of using questionnaire may be restricted if the respondents are with very little level of education (Gilbert, 2008).
Qualitative and Quantitative
Another hint: some scholarly journals use a specific layout, called the "IMRaD" format, to communicate empirical research findings. Chapter Five concludes with recommendations for further study. Chapter 3, according to Sekaran, (2003 Research is defined as an organised, systematic, data-based, critical, objective, scientific inquiry or investigation into a specific question, undertaken with the purpose of finding answers or solutions. Chapter Three investigates the dependence between equity and currency in international financial markets and explores its economic importance in portfolio allocation. Here, the researcher enters the organization or the research setting, and becomes a part of the work team. According to Gilbert (2008) the research design should involve the entire research process been considered and planned, including the background to the problem and the review of previous research, through to the research approach and the methods of data collection and analysis. The what is a quantitative empirical essay default dependence between banks is modeled by a novel dynamic asymmetric copula framework. This will involve an explanation of the methods used to collect and analyze the required data from interviewed respondents, with the aim of finding out answers to specific questions about the promotional tools used by SMEs in Nigeria (PortHarcout). The unstructured interview takes the form of respondents having the full liberty to discuss reactions, opinions and behavior on a particular issue with the aim of exploring and probing into the several factors in the situation that might. Furthermore, we perform an extensive regression analysis and find solid evidence that time-varying tail dependence between CDS spreads of UK banks contains useful information to explain and predict their joint and conditional default probabilities. The structured interview are those conducted when the information needed is known from the outset; emphasis is placed on response categories and systematic sampling and loading procedures combined with quantitative measures and statistical methods (Pervez and Kjell, 2002).
Interviews: Interviews are useful research techniques used to gather data for a research study that encounters difficulty gathering data through direct observation and / or recorded historical information (Seale, 1999) and is therefore used in social science research. Third, we show that findings of dynamic and asymmetric dependence between equity and currency have important implications for risk management and asset allocation in international financial markets. The interviews could be done face-to-face, on the phone or computer or through the electronic media; the questionnaire could be administered personally or through electronic medium. Pervez and Kjell, (2002) Interviewing as a data collection method has the advantage of flexibility in terms of adapting, adopting, and changing the questions as the researcher proceeds with the interviews (Uma, 2003 this advantages inherent informs the researchers. The market-implied probability of default for individual banks is derived from observed market"s of CDS. Personally administered questionnaire is often a good way to collect data when the research survey is confined to a local area and the organization is willing and able to assemble groups of employees to respond to the questions at their place of work (Uma, 2003).
Thesis Doctor Of Philosophy
Full text available as: Printed Thesis Information: copula theory is particularly useful for modeling multivariate distributions as it allows us to what is a quantitative empirical essay decompose a joint distribution into marginal distributions and a copula. Disclaimer: This work has been submitted by a student. (1998) Research methodology refers to the procedural framework within which the research is conducted. Supervisor's Name: Cerrato, Prof. Here, the use of a combination of research strategies may be utilised depending on the nature of the research study being undertaken as this would help the researcher make valid findings and conclusion and thereafter make applicable recommendations for the proposed research study. It is important that strategies adopted at each stage of the research design should reflect on the research question and involve the use of the research design and question to interrogate each other. In order to have a comprehensive source of data, both primary sources of data such as individuals, focus groups, panel of respondents, and secondary sources of data such as company records, government publications, industry analyses offered by the. (Pervez and Kjell, 2002). Focus groups Focus group is a method of interviewing that involves more than one, usually at least four interviewees (Bryman, 2005). Date of Award: 2016, depositing User: Dr yang zhao, unique ID: glathesis:2016-7179, copyright: Copyright of this thesis is held by the author. That is, it tries to gather knowledge about human through their interactions, behavior, experiences, attitudes and perceptions of social events.
How to write a diagnostic essay about myself
However, the participant observation method of collecting qualitative data has the merit of obtaining generally more reliable data free from respondents bias, though a major demerit of this method is that it is a slow method that is tedious and expensive to conduct. However, a major short coming of the focus group is that it only provides the researcher with only qualitative information and not a combination of both qualitative and quantitative information. It guides (marketing) managers in making informed decisions with the information, it provides. This method of data collection is essentially a group interview with a moderator leading the discussions for about two hours on a particular topic, concept or product, with members chosen on the bases of their expertise in the topic. The observation of individuals or events can be done with or without the aid of video taping or audio recording.
Submit a, quantitative, empirical, essay. Hence, the mixed research method incorporates elements of both the qualitative method and the quantitative method. Such articles typically have 4 components: Introduction: sometimes called "literature review" - what is currently known about the topic - usually includes a theoretical framework and/or discussion of previous studies. Moreover, the qualitative research approach also embodies a view of social reality as a constantly shifting emergent property of individuals creation (Bryman, 2004). PhD thesis, University of Glasgow. Our empirical results show the statistical significance of the tvac model in risk management and its economic values in real-time investment. Creswell (2003.154) defines survey design as one which provides a quantitative or numeric description of trends, attitudes, or options of a population by studying a sample of that population. Fielding and Schreier (2001) whilst citing Denzin (1970) report that this method has three distinguishing models or meanings namely: The Validity Model which is a joint validation of results collected on the basis of different methods; The Complementarity. Quantitative and qualitative methodologies are generally associated respectively with the two principal research paradigms, which are generally labelled positivism and phenomenology.
Jankowicz (2005) defined research method as a systematic and orderly approach taken towards the collection and analysis of data so that information can be obtained from those data. Quantitative research designs are characterised by the assumption that human behaviour can be explained by what may be termed social facts which can be investigated by methodologies that utilise the deductive logic of the natural sciences. Complete Observer: Here, the researcher does not take part in the activities of the group and does not review the purpose of his or her activity to those been observed. (Jones, 1997; Horna, 1994) Bryman and Bell (2003) identified quantitative and qualitative methods as two distinct clusters of research strategy, which give a general orientation to the conduct of business research. Document and audio-visual materials. Comparing our model with traditional copula models, we find that the traditional models may underestimate the joint credit risk most of the time, especially during a crisis. The subsections below, outlines the quantitative and qualitative research methods futher. This doctoral thesis particularly pays attention to applications of copula theory in quantitative risk management.