A research paper on global warming


a research paper on global warming

The computer climate models upon which "human-caused global warming" is based have substantial uncertainties and are markedly unreliable. Why then has energy production thrived abroad while domestic production has stagnated? (2001) Nature 411, 290-293. . Figure 27: Construction of one Palo Verde installation with 10 reactors in each of the 50 states. (1998) Global Warming the Continuing Debate, Cambridge UK: European Science and Environment Forum,. This is not a new finding, as it was also demonstrated over 30 years ago (Hasselman, 1976) and is related to the fact that the ocean, due to its large heat capacity, retains a memory of past changes. A review of 23 quantitative records has demonstrated that mean and median world temperatures in 2006 were, on average, approximately 1 C or 2 F cooler than in the Medieval Period (12). Fresh water is also believed to be in short supply. Hydrocarbon use by 90 (123 thereby eliminating 75 of America's energy supply, are obviously impractical. Crops grow more abundantly in a warmer, higher CO2 environment, so this can mitigate future problems that may arise (12). The 50 nuclear installations might be sited on a population basis. At most, only.4 million of the dark money addresses global warming topics, with a net of only.2 million opposing global warming activism.

Environmental Effects of Increased Atmospheric Carbon

Curiously, neither Brulle nor Uyger provides any evidence or source material backing up the assertion that most money donated to conservative foundations is donated by energy companies with an agenda to fund global warming skeptics. If any ipcc scientists would like to dispute that claim, please e-mail me at roy. Inexpensively blocking the sun by means of particles in the upper atmosphere would be effective. The dashed line represents what the simple model chose for a relationship, and a research paper on global warming the solid line is fitted to the actual satellite data. Later, Edward Teller similarly suggested (18) that particles could be injected into the atmosphere in order to reduce solar heating and cool the Earth. L., and Rasmussen,. (1979) Geophysical Research Letters 6, 767-769. Figure 12 shows the close correlation between the sea level and glacier records, which further validates both records and the duration and character of the temperature change that gave rise to them. The CO2 produced does, however, accelerate the growth rates of plants and also permits plants to grow in drier regions. There is no reason to limit human production of CO2, CH4, and other minor greenhouse gases as has been proposed (82,83,97,123).


Department of Energy, Oak Ridge, TN, USA,. Despite enormous tax subsidies over the past 30 years, green sources still provide only.3.S. World glacier length (4) and world sea level (24,25) measurements provide records of the recent cycle of recovery. They simply make the assertion based on speculation without providing any factual support. Orange and young pine tree growth enhancement (117-119) with two atmospheric CO2 increases that which has already occurred since 1885 and that projected for the next two centuries is also shown. Human production of 8 Gt C per year of CO2 is negligible as compared with the 40,000 Gt C residing in the oceans and biosphere. It can reasonably be argued that cooling from negative physical and biological a research paper on global warming feedbacks to greenhouse gases nullifies the slight initial temperature rise (84,86). But all it would take is a small change in global average (or Northern Hemispheric average) cloudiness to cause global warming. The historical temperature record shows that the Earth has previously warmed far more than could be caused by CO2 itself. Moreover, the radiative effects of CO2 are logarithmic (101,102 so more than 40 of any climatic influences have already occurred. These measurements show that the trend of 7 inches per century increase in sea level and the shortening trend in average glacier length both began a century before 1940, yet 84 of total human annual hydrocarbon use occurred only after 1940.


This is already being observed, as studies at higher altitudes have reported increases in amount and diversity of plant and animal life by more than 50 (12,80). This stagnation has been caused by United States government taxation, regulation, and sponsorship of litigation, which has made the.S. Beginning with the 7 to 10-year half-time of CO2 in the atmosphere estimated by Revelle and Seuss (69 there were 36 estimates of the atmospheric CO2 half-time based upon experimental measurements published between 19 (59). All five focus solely on environmental issues and are frequent and prominent advocates for global warming restrictions. The most practical, economical, and environmentally sound methods available are hydrocarbon and nuclear a research paper on global warming technologies. Figures with Captions - PowerPoint - 8MB. Higher CO2 enables plants to grow faster and larger and to live in drier climates. Braswell (2008 Potential biases in cloud feedback diagnosis: A simple model demonstration,. This brings us to another whopper told by Brulle, Goldenberg and their media allies the assertion that all the think tanks identified in Brulles paper actively fight against global warming activism.


a research paper on global warming

Global Warming Cato Institute

The average temperature of the Earth has varied within a range of about 3C during the past 3,000 years. Predictions of catastrophic global warming are based on computer climate modeling, a branch of science still in its infancy. The overall trend is an increase of 7 inches per century. Goldenberg tells the lie that all money raised by all conservative and libertarian think tanks is devoted to global warming skepticism. Online by a Hoover Institution fellow commenting on a global warming poll. Solar irradiance correlates with them. Therefore, if energy is abundant and inexpensive, there is no practical limit to world food production.


Other groups identified in a research paper on global warming Brulles paper have similarly expressed support for a carbon tax and global warming activism. By contrast, American dependence on automobiles results in more than 40,000 human deaths per year. My use of only PDO-forced variations in the Earths radiative energy budget to explain three-quarters of the global warming trend is no less biased than the ipccs use of carbon dioxide to explain global warming without accounting for natural climate variability. It is currently increasing as the Earth recovers from a period that is known as the Little Ice Age, as shown in Figure. The Global Warming Review Paper is available as a PDF file in 3 sizes. It is the sole source of carbon in all of the protein, carbohydrate, fat, and other organic molecules of which living things are constructed. Using current knowledge about the increased growth rates of plants and assuming increased CO2 release as compared to current emissions, it has been estimated that atmospheric CO2 levels may rise to about 600 ppm before leveling off.


'Dark Money' Funds To Promote Global Warming Alarmism

B., and Robinson,. There are no experimental data to support the hypothesis that increases in human hydrocarbon use or in atmospheric carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases are causing or can be expected to cause unfavorable changes in global temperatures, weather, or landscape. (1995) Climatic Change 31, 455-474. Government does not produce energy. Glaciers regularly lengthen and shorten in delayed correlation with cooling and warming trends.


Global warming controversy - Wikipedia

The rates of approach to equilibrium are, however, slow enough that human use creates a transient atmospheric a research paper on global warming increase. We have no means by which to warm. A., and Andres,. These examples are representative of a very large research literature on this subject (103-109). A., (1997) Global Change Biol. The next few years of satellite data might provide some very interesting insights into whether the Pacific Decadal Oscillation is indeed a major force in climate change. I also pulled up the website for the Heritage Foundation, which Brulle and the media claim is the conservative think tank receiving and spending the second most amount of money on global warming skepticism. It need not be stored in expensive repositories. The PDO-only (dashed) curve in Fig.


Sargasso Sea temperatures are now approximately equal to the average for the previous 3,000 years. To the contrary, two of the three top-funded groups (AEI and the Hoover Institution) support a carbon tax. The ipcc simply assumes that this kind of natural cloud variability does not exist, and that the Earth stays in a perpetual state of radiative balance that has only been recently disrupted by mankinds greenhouse gas emissions. Figure 12: Glacier shortening (4) and sea level rise (24,25). Atmospheric concentrations of CO2 are reported to have varied widely over geological time, with peaks, according to some estimates, some 20-fold higher than at present a research paper on global warming and lows at approximately 200 ppm (60-62). Several other studies over a wide variety of time intervals have found similar correlations between climate and solar activity (15, 34-39). Indeed, during four of the seven decades since 1940 when average CO2 levels steadily increased,.S. Hoover Institution, identified as raising and spending the third most money on global warming skepticism, also rarely addresses the global warming topic.


Global warming transforms coral reef assemblages Nature

This trend is more pronounced in the Northern Hemisphere than in the Southern. The six measuring stations in Los Angeles County were used to calculate the standard error of that county, which is plotted at a a research paper on global warming population.9 million. Kuo,., Lindberg,. Historical reports of that period record the growing of warm weather crops in localities too cold for that purpose today, so it is to be expected that the area of more temperate climate will expand as it did then. Mankind, meanwhile, is moving some of the carbon in coal, oil, and natural gas from below ground to the atmosphere and surface, where it is available for conversion into living things. (1987) Forest Statistics of the United States,.S. Jaworowski,., Segalstad,. If temperatures become too warm, this can easily be corrected. This would lower fuel cost and eliminate the storage of high-level nuclear waste.


Both methods use particles so small that they would be invisible from the Earth. Raigaina, World Scientific Publishing, Singapore, 189-210. M., and Hanna,. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (2007 Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis, report, 996., Cambridge University Press, New York City. Teller,., Wood,., and Hyde,. (2007) Liquid Coal, Fort Meyers, Fl,. (2007) Geophysical Research Letters 34, 2007GL029698. (1992) Science of the Total Environ. S., and Mitchum,.


Seven independent records solar irradiance; Arctic, Northern Hemisphere, global, and.S. In that comparison, there were NO five year periods from ANY of the ipcc model simulations which produced a feedback parameter with as low a climate sensitivity as that found in the satellite data. The environmental effects of rapid expansion of the nuclear and hydrocarbon a research paper on global warming energy industries are discussed. Far greater changes have occurred during the time that all current species of animals and plants have been on the Earth. To show that we are not the only researchers who have documented evidence contradicting the ipcc models on the subject of climate sensitivity, I made the following figure (Fig. The calculated trends vary significantly as a function of the most recent fluctuations and the lengths of the data sets, which are short. The evidence presented here suggests that most of that warming might well have been caused by cloud changes associated with a natural mode of climate variability: the Pacific Decadal Oscillation.


'Pause' in global warming was never real, new research

Spencer and Braswell (2008) showed theoretically that daily random variations in cloudiness can actually cause substantial decadal time-scale variability on ocean temperatures. Might such internally-generated climate change even explain events like the Medieval Warm Period and the Little Ice Age? (2003) Nature 424, 168-170. Kennedy have proposed (98) that the exhaust systems of commercial airliners could be tuned in such a way as to eject particulate sun-blocking material into the upper atmosphere. During this period, world hydrocarbon use increased 6-fold, while violent tornado frequency decreased.


Global warming impairs stockrecruitment dynamics

Tree ring widths were averaged in 20-year segments and then normalized so that the means of prior tree growth were zero. The ipcc has simply assumed that these natural fluctuations in weather patterns do not cause climate change. A trend.5 єC per century is more representative (13-17). There is, therefore, an investment risk that crude oil prices could drop so low that liquefaction plants could not compete. Intermediate trends are 9, 0, 12, 0, and 12 inches per century, respectively. L., Soon,., and Robinson,. The United States and other countries need to produce more energy, not less. This trend lags the temperature increase, so it predates the increase a research paper on global warming in hydrocarbon use even more than is shown. Frequency histogram of total (reflected solar plus emitted infrared)feedback parameters computed from all possible 5 year periods in transient forcing experiments in 18 climate models tracked by the ipcc, versus the same calculation from Aqua ceres and noaa-15 amsu channel 5 satellite data. 4 ranged from.7.0 Watts per square meter per PDO index value. "Hypothesis 2" is the hypothetical moderation effect.


There are no experimental data that suggest this. The remaining heat from nuclear power plants could warm air or water for use in indoor climate control and other purposes. Thus, rather than a 300 billion trade loss, the.S. The "urban heat island effect" on surface measurements is evident. (1995) Global Change Biology 1, 77-91. Teller estimated a cost of between 500 million and 1 billion per year for between 1 єC a research paper on global warming and 3 єC of cooling. Department of Commerce 2006 Climate Review. So called "global" or "hemispheric" averages contain errors created by averaging systematically different aspects of unique geographical regions and by inclusion of regions where temperature records are unreliable. Climate has improved somewhat, with more rainfall, fewer tornados, and no increase in hurricane activity, as illustrated in Figures 7. Some of the material contained therein will be submitted to Journal of Climate in January 2009 as part of a much more comprehensive paper.) Spencer,.W., and.D.


(2003) Nature 424, 165-168. (2005) Geology 33, 73-76. Figure 4: Annual mean surface temperatures in the contiguous United States between 18 (10). Moreover, the record shows that, even while methane was increasing, temperature trends were benign. The Earth has been warming as it recovers from the Little Ice Age at an average rate of about.5 єC per century. (1982) Climate, History, and the Modern World, Methuen, New York. (2006) An Inconvenient Truth, Rodale,. Rayner (2002 An observationally based estimate of the climate sensitivity,. H., Li,., McConnell,. (Check out this for a more complete treatment of the signature of feedbackincluding evidence that this behavior also exists in the ipcc climate models themselves.). Some new designs are as high. Office air concentrations often exceed 1,000 ppm CO2. The extent and diversity of plant and animal life have both increased substantially during the past half-century.


Global Warmings Paper Trail by Benjamin Franta - Project

Their 1 billion is not diluted addressing issues such as economic policy, health care policy, foreign policy, etc. The single most important human component in the preservation of the Earth's environment is energy. The temperature of the Earth is continuing its process of fluctuation in correlation with variations in natural phenomena. The selections of species in Figure 23 were biased toward plants that respond less to CO2 fertilization than does the mixture actually covering the Earth, so Figure 23 underestimates the effects of global CO2 enhancement. Abstract, a simple climate model forced by satellite-observed changes in the Earths radiative budget associated with the Pacific Decadal Oscillation is shown to mimic the major features of global average temperature change during the 20th Century including three-quarters of the warming trend. Figure 14: Satellite microwave sounding unit (blue) measurements of tropospheric temperatures in the Northern Hemisphere between 0 and.5 N, Southern Hemisphere between 0 and.5 S, tropics between 20S and 20N, and the globe between.5N and.5S.


Global Warming as a Natural Response to Cloud Changes

(1995) Science 270, 778-780. Soon,., Baliunas,., Idso,. The plant mixture in the 279 studies was slightly biased toward plant types that respond less to CO2 fertilization than does the actual global mixture. Projected Costs of Generating Electricity: 2005 Update (2005 Paris: Nuclear Energy Agency, oecd Publication., Paris. Mankind is moving the carbon in coal, oil, and natural gas from below ground to the atmosphere, where it is available for conversion into living things. Without even addressing the mathematical fact that 900 million is 100 million short of the 1 billion claimed by Goldenberg, Brulles paper merely tabulates the total money raised by the 91 conservative think tanks for their total operations regarding. As atmospheric CO2 increases, plant growth rates increase. Increased carbon dioxide has, however, markedly increased plant growth.


Nuclear technology has advanced substantially since Palo Verde was built, so plants constructed today would be even more reliable and efficient. Political calls for a reduction.S. These trends confirm one another. Surface temperature and world hydrocarbon use are not correlated, as shown in Figure. Tropospheric temperatures measured by satellite give comprehensive geographic coverage. (2006) Geophysical Research Letters 33, 2006GL027142. So, what if those chaotic variations in cloud cover occurred on time scales longer than days yearly, or 30 years (like with the PDO or 100 years? Such a cloud change would cause the climate system to go through natural fluctuations in average temperature for extended periods of time. 77, 3-4; Goodridge,. There are no empirical records that verify either these models or their flawed predictions (96). The straight line is a least-squares fit to the closed circles. In distinguishing the practical from the futuristic, a free market in energy is absolutely essential.


The discrepancy between the models and observations seen in Figs. If I include the CO2 and other forcings during the 20th Century complied by James Hansen with the PDO-forced cloud changes (solid line labeled pdoco2 then the fit to observed temperatures is even closer. (2005) Science 308, 854-857. Brulle claims the 91 groups receive approximately 900 million in cumulative funding each year, with approximately 64 million coming from foundations that a research paper on global warming distribute dark money that cannot be traced to a particular donor. American Nuclear Society, Nuclear News (2007) March, 46-48. The recovery of Arctic sea ice now underway might be an early sign that this is indeed happening. This is the same technique employed by Forster and Taylor (2006) to isolate the signal of radiative forcing in 20 climate models tracked by the ipcc.


As Spencer and Braswell (2008b) have shown with a simple model, the radiative feedback signature in globally-averaged radiative flux-versus-temperature data is always highly correlated, while the time-varying radiative forcing signature of internal climate fluctuations is uncorrelated because the forcing and. This is twice the oil production of Saudi Arabia. Trees respond to CO2 fertilization more strongly than do most other plants, but all plants respond to some extent. At present, 43.S. Tell that to the supporters of Obamacare. This temperature change is slight as compared with other natural variations, as shown in Figure. Atmospheric CO2 has increased about Carbon dioxide has a very short residence time in the atmosphere. This allows some measure of identification a research paper on global warming and separation of the two signals. So great are the magnitudes of these reservoirs, the rates of exchange between them, and the uncertainties of these estimated numbers that the sources of the recent rise in atmospheric CO2 have not been determined with certainty (58,59). There has been no increase in frequency or severity of Atlantic hurricanes during the period of 6-fold increase in hydrocarbon use, as is illustrated in Figures 9 and.



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