Flint defines soil as-Soil is that part of the regolith that will support rooted plants. Strahler defines soil as a natural surface layer containing living matter and supporting or capable of supporting plants. Consider, for example, an offset alluvial fan along the San Andreas fault in the Indio Hills of southern California. Probably the most important type is the argillic B, or horizon. Soil is the natural resource on the earth which directly supports the life of plants and indirectly of animals since the origin of life on the earth. Noise Pollution Essay, pollution Slogans : Air Pollution Slogans, water Pollution Slogans. Industrial wastes released by the industrial processes contain organic, inorganic and non-biodegradable materials which have ability to change physiochemical and biological characteristics of the soil. Parent rock material,. Soil Structure, soil particles often cling together in aggregates, called peds, that are classified according to shape into several types.
Short, essay on, soil, profile (844 Words)
Effects of Soil pollution, diseases caused by Soil pollution, solutions of Soil Pollution More on Plastic Pollution: Essay on Plastic Bag Essay on Plastic Pollution Why Plastic Bags Should be Banned Essay Plastic Pollution: Causes, Effects and Solutions Why Plastic Bags are Harmful for Health. When mixed with water, smeared on the back of the hand, and allowed to dry, clay cannot be dusted off easily, whereas silt or sand can. Carbonate completely fills the pore spaces in K horizons, and the carbonate often forms in layers parallel to the surface. This allowed the slip rate (the amount of offset of the fan divided by the age of the fan that is, for this part of the San Andreas fault to be estimated at about 3 cm annually. Another method is to feel the soil: Sand is gritty (crunches between the teeth silt feels like baking flour, and clay is cohesive. Advertisements: According to Arthur Holmes From a geological point of view soil may be defined as the surface layer of the mantle of rock-waste in which the physical and chemical processes of weathering co-operate in intimate association with biological processes (Principles. Soil pollution is the contamination of fresh and fertile soil which adversely affects the health of crops, plants, animals, human beings and other organisms living. A moderately developed soil profile may consist of an A horizon overlying an argillic horizon that overlies the C horizon. Soil formation, or pedogenesis, is the combined effect of physical, chemical, biological and anthropogenic processes on soil parent material. The original parent material, if rich in iron, may produce a very red soil even when there has been relatively little soil profile development. In cold climates bacterial activity is limited whereas it is very intense and rapid in warm, moist climates. Advertisements: These layers from the surface down to the unchanged parent material is called the soil-profile, which is characteristic of the residual soil (i.e.
They are: parent material, climate, topography (relief organisms, and time. Soil pollution depletes the soil nutrients because of the availability of heavy concentration of undesirable foreign elements into soil through chemicalization. If a true K horizon has developed, it may be almost white because of its great abundance of calcium carbonate. However, it is important for geologists to recognise differences among weakly developed, moderately developed, and well-developed soils; that is, to recognise their relative profile development. A carbonate horizon may also be present but is not necessary for a soil to be considered moderately developed. Some of the contaminants occur naturally however most of them are due to the industrialization and human activities. A simple soil-profile shows three distinct layers designated as A, B and C- layer. Varieties of other pesticides (like insecticides, fungicides, etc) are also getting used by the farmers to save their crops from the insects and fungus. Other sources of the soil pollution are municipal garbage heap, food processing wastes, mining practices, and many more. Soil pits excavated in the alluvial fan suggest that it is at least 20,000 years old, but younger than 45,000 years. But the activities of both bacteria and fungi are related an essay on soil profile to climatic conditions. The alteration and movement of materials within a soil causes the formation of distinctive soil horizons.
Poorly drained soils are wet, and iron is reduced rather than oxidised. Which often speed up the decomposition of the mineral matter and accelerates soil-formation. It has been estimated that earthworms completely work over a soil layer of 6 to 12 iches thick every 50 years. The characteristics of a particular soil are a function of climate, topography, parent material(the rock or alluvium from which the soil is formed time (age of the soil and organic processes(activity of soil organisms). In order to reduce and restrict the soil pollution, all the effective control measures including environment protection laws should be followed by the people especially industrialist. Thus, the earlier soil date has been improved by more recent technology. Other ways of soil pollution are acidification, agrochemical pollution, salinization, and contamination by metalliferous wastes. Soil is the surface layer of the earth restricted to land, consisting of a layer of broken-down, fine and loose rock material, produced by the weathering processes, mixed with decayed vegetation and other organic matter. The processes of soil formation are most intimately associated with the weathering processes and the factors indicated above also determine the characteristics of the soil. Since the parent material or the bedrock is composed entirely of materials, it provides the inorganic constituents to the soil. Soil structure is an important diagnostic tool in helping to evaluate the development and approximate age of soil profiles. Some radioactive pollutants from the sources like nuclear reactors, explosions, hospitals, scientific laboratories, etc go very deep to the soil, remain there for long time and cause soil pollution.
Soil, profile, Sample of, essays
Heavy rainfall causes downward movement of water and soluble materials in the soil and the process is known as leaching. On fiat-bottom lands in the flood plains, there is dark coloured, thick soils, since the flat bottom lands are poorly drained. Major sources of the soil pollution are industrial wastes, urban wastes, chemical pollutants, metallic pollutants, biological agents, radioactive pollutants, wrong agricultural practices, etc. Below the O or A horizon, some soils have an E horizon, or zone of leaching, a light-coloured layer that is leached of iron-bearing components. The E horizon, if present, may be almost white, owing to the leaching of iron and aluminium oxides. However, it is not possible because of the technological advancement. Local topography It affects the character of the soil profile. Kids are more prone to the polluted soil than the adults as they play into it and gets attacked by many diseases especially respiratory disorders. All types of such chemicals have very dangerous effects directly on the plants growth (inhibits growth, reduces production and reduces size of fruit) and indirectly on the human health. Improper, unnecessary and continuous use of variety of strong organic or inorganic insecticides (DDT, benzene hexa chloride, aldrin, etc herbicides, fungicides, pesticides, etc in order to secure crops from insects, pests, fungus, etc are gradually toxifying the soil. As the soil passes through their bodies, it is subjected to mechanical and chemical modification. Increasing human population need more grains thus in order to fulfill this requirement people use highly concentrated fertilizers to improve the crop production which ultimately affects health through the food chain.
It is increasing day by day at a faster rate in the rural and urban areas of the country. The science which deals with the study of the soil is known as Pedology and the process of soil formation is called pedogenesis. This layer is regarded commonly as sub soil Mineral matter removed from the A-horizon through solution are precipitated in the B-horizon. However, once such a chronosequence is developed and dated, it may be applied to a specific problem. It totally disturbs the level of texture an essay on soil profile and mineral, bacterial and fungal colonies of the soil. The main reasons of soil pollution are human activities including accidental leaks, spills, manufacturing processes, dumping, etc. Most of these factors are interdependent. A vertical section made through a soil reveals a series of more or less distinct layers. Such a sequence is valuable in hazards work, because it provides information about the recent history of a landscape, allowing us to evaluate site stability when locating such critical facilities as a waste disposal operation or a large power plant.
They extract vegetable matter from the soil by eating their way through. Soil is basically broken-down rock materials and consists of decomposed rock debris and decayed organic matter(humus) which have been produced by weathering. Hardpan horizons are nearly impermeable and, thus, restrict the downward movement of soil water. As a an essay on soil profile natural resource, soil is of immense value to man. Soil development would proceed most rapidly from bare rock of recent flows in a warm climate, under heavy and frequent rainfall. This new and more accurate estimation of age provides a maximum slip rate of about.7 cm/yr.
Essay on, soil, pollution for Children and Students
Soil Pollution Essay 2 (150 words). Bacteria are also involved in the nitrogen and sulphur cycles. In general, as the profile develops with time, structure becomes more complex and may go from granular to blocky to prismatic as the clay content in the B horizons increases. A chronosequence combined with numerical dating (applying a variety of dating techniques, such as radiocarbon 14C, to obtain a date in years before the present time of the soil) may provide the data necessary to make such inferential. From the above definitions, it may be stated that.
Washed in) in the B-horizon. The development of a soil from inorganic and organic materials is a complex process. Rainfall, as we know, is primarily dependent on the moisture content in the air and it varies from place to place with respect to its intensity, total amount in its distribution throughout the year. Increasing industrialization and increasing consumption of various effective fertilizers in the fertile land is continuously changing the soil composition and complexion of earth strata which is very dangerous indication to the future of life on the earth. Bedrock underlying the C-horizon is designated as R- horizon. It is the home for many small animals, it is the life of plants and used by the human beings to produce variety of crops to continue life cycle here. Intimate interactions of the rock and hydrologic cycles produce the weathered rock materials that are basic ingredients of soils. Soil pollution is the polluted soil because of the presence of toxic chemicals (also called pollutants or contaminants) in very high concentration to the soil of fertile land. Several types of B horizon have been recognized. Below, we have given some essay on soil pollution under different words limit according to the need and requirement of the school students. (Introduction to Physical Geology, 2nd Edition, John Wiley Sons, Inc. Burrowing animals are effective soil makers. Dead plants contribute to the humus content of the soil and the process of humification releases carbon dioxide and organic acids together an essay on soil profile with traces of ammonia and nitric acid etc.
Essay on, soil : Classification, Profile, Composition and, soil
The plants are supported by the porous rock as it is filled with nutrient-bearing water that carries dissolved minerals from rocks and guano. Note that the sizes of particles given here are for engineering classification and are slightly different from those used by the.S. Soil Chronosequences, a soil chronosequence is a series of soils arranged from youngest to oldest on the basis of their relative profile development. If weathered material is transported by water, wind, or glaciers and then modified in its new location, it forms a transported soil, such as the fertile soils formed from glacial deposits in the American Midwest. Even the bacteria sometimes cause the quicker decay of neighbouring rock surfaces. Such soils tend to be only a few hundred years old in most areas, but may be several thousand years old. Soil pollution is the contamination of the soil of fertile land which is gradually increasing day by day mainly because an essay on soil profile of the use of fertilizers and industrialization. Climate gives rise to different soil types from the same parent material and also widely different parent materials may produce similar soils in one climatic context. Earlier, the soil were very much fertile without the use of any fertilizers but now-a-days all the farmers have started using very strong fertilizers in order to increase crop production because of high demand of food by the increasing population. More recent work, using a numerical dating technique known as exposure dating, suggests the age of years and a total displacement of about 570. Urban wastes are solid wastes include commercial and domestic wastes which make a huge heap on the soil and contribute to the soil pollution.