This means the bonds holding the tertiary structure of the enzyme together will be overcome, and the active site will have altered in shape. Elected Board members are nominated by the Board and are confirmed by the Alabama State Senate. Therefore the manometer fluid will not move away from the invertebrates, as there is an equal force to oppose this increase in pressure. Now that we have seen how respiration is able to release energy from glucose, we can consider the role enzymes play in the process. We dump the high energy electrons onto the O2 molecules they pick up a couple of hydrogen ions and become water. I can then work out the cumulative oxygen consumption. A lock and a key theory can resemble this in that if the key,.e. I will also make sure I read the position of the manometer fluid at eye level, to prevent inaccurately reading the position of the fluid. The reason for using a 1cm3 syringe as oppose to a 10cm3 syringe is because it has a smaller error margin, and therefore makes it more accurate to use.
Investigating respiration of maggots, essay, example
This is why in my investigation the manometer fluid in the manometer will move towards the maggots. I shall then weigh some maggots using some measuring scales, and then put these into one of the boiling tubes, ensuring that none come into contact with the soda lime. Finally I will be using a water bath at temperature up to 60 degrees Celsius. Egg Adult winged Fly Larva (maggot) Pupa As essay respiration the maggot gets older and progresses through the life cycle it becomes a more specialised organism. Finally the interactions between the substrate and active site of the enzyme cause the substrate to break down. If it fluctuates then I can account for any changes in rate of respiration. The enzyme lowers the activation energy further, so that a larger number of molecules have the required energy and can cause a reaction.
This however is not due to oxygen consumption of the maggots and will therefore add inaccuracy to the experiment. For this reason amylase can only break down starch, due to the substrates fitting into the active site. In yeast the pyruvate is converted into carbon dioxide and ethanol. The large variety of different R groups means different shape active sites can exist, explaining why the enzymes are specific to one substrate type. Glycolysis is the stage in which glucose is broken up, and this occurs in the cytoplasm of a cell. It is in the final stage of respiration that the bulk of ATP is produced, and it is this stage which requires oxygen. The Chancellor also provides linkage between the System and various components of state and federal governments, as well as other educational groups and organizations.
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However this only accounts for 3 of the 28 molecules of ATP formed during oxidative phosphorylation. Finally the enzyme and products move away, and the enzyme can then be used again. Theory Respiration is a process in which organic molecules are broken down in several stages to release chemical potential energy. Aim: The aim of my investigation is to see how the rate of respiration of some maggots differs between room temperature and other temperatures, in terms of volume of oxygen produced. Within Alabama, it is often called the Capstone and. This is because the rate of respiration is dependent on the mass of the maggots, so therefore I must know the exact mass of the maggots. Closing the bung and then waiting for about one minute so that there is no carbon dioxide to start with can eliminate this. The energy profile diagram shows the smaller peaks, which arise as a result of the enzyme. This university is organized into five colleges: business, engineering, the liberal arts, nursing, and the sciences. It is in this stage that the hydrogen atoms essay respiration being carried by the reduced NAD and reduced FAD are put to use, and the stage is known as Oxidative Phosphorylation.
Next I will put 2g of soda lime in the bottom of each of the two boiling tubes, and will then place a gauze into each, which will rest slightly above the soda lime. If we now however raise the temperature the graph will look like the one shown below. The enzyme has a specific 3-dimensional shape and this means a certain enzyme can break down only substrates with a certain shape. UAH is a Space Grant university, and it has a history of cooperation with both the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (See: Marshall Space Flight Center ) and the.S. During the Link reaction, pyruvate is decarboxylated-.e. I will vary the temperature from 10 degrees Celsius to 60 degrees Celsius in 10*c intervals. This essay respiration will enable me to account for any anomalous results I may acquire during the experiments.
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The electron transport chain is a network of electron-carrying proteins located in the inner membrane of the mitochondrion. The 4 main stages of respiration are glycolysis, the link reaction, the Krebs cycle and oxidative phosphorylation. In 1950, another extension center was set. University of Alabama System is a public university system. Diagram showing structure of a simple amino acid H OH The enzyme is in the tertiary structure of a protein. _ Air Tight Seals If the screw-clips are not securely around the boiling tubes then some air will enter the boiling tube containing the maggots without passing through the manometer. After doing this I will attach a screw-clip to the boiling tube delivery tube.
After doing this I will place another gauze on top of the maggots to prevent them climbing up the tube. Let's take a closer look at how this happens, so here we see glucose which is a 6 carbon molecule that's what the little blue marbles here represent. The table below shows the main sources of error and how I have planned to reduce the errors. The third stage of the respiration process is known as the Krebs cycle, which is a closed pathway of enzyme-controlled reactions. For a reaction to occur the particles must collide with a certain minimum kinetic energy. The long amino acid chains coiling up on themselves bring about this structure. An enzyme can be defined as a biological catalyst and is affected by the environment it.
This will be explained in more detail in the next section. This is why think raising the temperature will increase the rate of respiration. Therefore I will use a spatula when I need to remove some from the bottle. Rate of Reaction Temperature The diagram above summarises how the overall reaction rate varies with temperature. Simply recording the volume of oxygen produced would only allow me to see that the maggots are respiring, which is not very useful. I must therefore bear this in mind when carrying out my investigation. 2Distribution curves showing effect of a temperature rise of 10K on the proportion of reactions with greater than 50kg mol-1 From the graph you can see that by increasing the temperature by 10 Kelvins the graph has shifted to the right-.e.
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_ Risk Assessment During my investigation there are various safety issues that I must abide by to ensure my experiment is safe. The Carnegie Classification of Institutions of Higher Education classifies UAB as an institution of RU/VH or "Very High Research Activity the only university in the state of Alabama to meet that definition. X (0.4)2 x.16 mm3 min-1 g-1.2 From the preliminary results you can see that as the temperature is raised from room temperature to 35 degrees Celsius, the cumulative volume of oxygen produced over a period of 6 minutes increases-.e. 1 References edit External links edit. Now we need some place to dump those high energy electrons and that's what oxygen is for. This is not something I will be able to control in my experiment, except by keeping the mass of the maggots constant. Maggots Maggots are cold blooded and so can not regulate their body temperature like mammals can. Ensuring the gauss fit tightly against the sides of the boiling tube can reduce this problem. Simple Prediction, i predict that as I raise the temperature of the maggots, the rate of respiration will increase.
However, during the steps between the splitting of glucose and formation of pyruvate, energy is released and is then used to make 4 ATP units. I think this because respiration is an enzyme-dependant process of reactions. Now like I said it produces 36 ATP but compared to anaerobic respiration without using oxygen it's slow and it does have that whole requirement about oxygen which is one of those annoying things I mean you. Mass of Maggots- Clearly more maggots means more respiration, and therefore more oxygen is consumed. I will then repeat the experiment twice to allow for any anomalous results. I will then putt some glass beads into the other boiling tube and also connect this to the manometer. The air inside the boiling tube will heat up and therefore will expand. Once again NAD is the carrier which removes the hydrogen atoms and forms reduced NAD. We will write a custom essay sample. Alternatively, to reduce the percentage error, I must use a piece of apparatus with a smaller error margin. Measuring scales, glass beads, screw Clip, capillary U-Tube (Manometer) 3 Gauss.
This is illustrated in the diagram below. The Governor of Alabama is a member of the board by virtue of the office. UAB is currently the state's largest employer with more than 18,000 faculty and staff and over 53,000 jobs at the university and in the health system. As temperature is a variable in my experiment, I must make sure the temperature of the maggots remains constant throughout the experiments. The makeup of the Board is dictated by the Constitution of the State of Alabama, and requires that the board be made up of three members from the congressional district that contains the Tuscaloosa campus, and two members from every other congressional district in Alabama. Board members may serve three consecutive six-year terms. This would therefore cause the enzyme to become of no use so the reaction progress will decrease and eventually stop. The hydrogen atoms then break down into hydrogen ions (H) and electrons. In the left diagram we can see that the enzyme and substrate are in a mixture.
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Again we get a little bit of energy molecules in the form of ATP or actually technically it's GTP and this is where we finally start releasing all of the carbon dioxides as they come flying out those carbons used to be in the glucose. I will then, if necessary, use a clamp to hold the boiling tubes in place. When the maggots respire they produce carbon dioxide. However the problem arises when this set up is used when the invertebrates are put into a water bath. The University of Alabama edit, main article: The University of Alabama, founded in 1831 and located in, tuscaloosa, Alabama, The University of Alabama (also known as, alabama, or colloquially as bama ) was established by constitutional provision under statutory mandates and authorizations. During some minutes they may be more active so the rate would not be constant. Aerobic respiration is the process of breaking down the food that comes into a cell using oxygen to help power that process. Below is a diagram showing how I intend to set up the apparatus. As a result the true oxygen consumption can be measured. With the creation of the UA system in 1969, UAB became a fully autonomous institution, and the Huntsville extension center also became an autonomous four-year campus as the University of Alabama in Huntsville. I am using a 1cm3 syringe as this is needed to put the manometer fluid into the manometer.
Below are written several reasons why I have decided to use some apparatus over others as well as outlining why I am using some of the apparatus that I have listed above. For this reason maggots are being used to determine how the rate of respiration is affected by temperature. There is a lot of glassware in my experiment so I will make sure I am careful when using them. This will ensure the experiment is fair throughout, in terms of the temperature of the maggots. As it passes between the three electron carriers, the energy level of the carriers, in relation to oxygen, decrease. Due to this the concentration of hydrogen ions in the intermembrane space increases. Carbon dioxide is removed. I will then begin the stopwatch and record how far the fluid has travelled after 1-minute time intervals. I will now go into more detail about how the many enzymes involved in respiration are able to do this. I will therefore have to work carefully and if I do burn myself I will immediately rinse my hand under cold water.
Aerobic Respiration - Biology Video by Brightstorm
An enzyme works by reducing the activation energy as shown in the diagram below. Variables There are many variables that affect the rate or respiration, so I must take these into account when I am doing my experiments. If done accurately the position can then be read.5 of a millimetre.5mm Maggots falling into soda lime If this occurs then the maggots may begin to respire at a different rate. When the bung essay respiration is first closed there will be extra carbon dioxide in the tube containing the maggots. Number of collisions With Kinetic Energy, E Kinetic Energy (E) The above diagram shows that only a small proportion of the molecules have the energy E to overcome the activation energy (which in this case is 50kg mol-1 and to cause a reaction to occur.
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Most of essay respiration the particles will be moving at moderate speeds, others will have slightly greater kinetic energy and some will have slightly less. Anaerobic respiration- the rate of oxygen uptake will be affected and will give inaccurate results. I must therefore also take this into consideration when carrying out my investigation. Hydrogen bonds and ionic being weak will break but disulphide bridges which are strong covalent bonds may not break and more and more enzymes will become denatured. 2 UAB is a vital economic engine of the state of Alabama with an estimated almost 5 billion annual impact. Therefore the rate of oxygen consumption will appear to be less. Stop Clock, this is necessary so that I can calculate the rate of oxygen uptake. And what they do is they shove the hydrogen ions across the membrane then as those hydrogen ions make their way back across the membrane just like water going from one side of a dam through the other can drive a hydro dynamic electric generator. Instead of using 1g of maggots, use 10g. In anaerobic cell respiration the pyruvate stays in the cytoplasm and in humans is converted into lactate which is the removed from the cell. Temperature- Respiration involves enzymes.
The energy released by the electron transport chain is also used to pump hydrogen ions into the mitochondrial intermembrane space. This will ensure the maggots are all at the same temperature. The rate will then begin to decrease when the temperature is too high. This means that of essay respiration those substrates that collide with the enzymes, the amount of energy of the impact is more likely to exceed the activation energy. In 1936, UA established an extension center. UAB is one of only 96 universities in the nation with the designation.
Cheyne-Stokes respiration : Symptoms, management, and
The two then bind and form an enzyme-substrate complex. After completing the experiment for one temperature, I will carry out the experiment for other temperatures. Therefore if the water bath heats up the rate will rise and vice versa, and once again the rate would not be constant. After this stage the enzyme-product complex forms, which also requires energy but less so than the enzyme-substrate complex. Using a measuring scale, which measures to 2 decimal places of a gram would be adequate, but if a more accurate measuring scale could be used, this would make my experiment even more accurate. This is the case for the manometer, which is connected to a control tube. As it is phosphorylated twice, to form hexose bisphosphate, 2 units of ATP are used. Began as extension center in 1950, became four-year campus in 1969. (Degree Celsius) Radius of manometer (mm3).4 Room Temperature.188.8.131.52.06.61.04.04.184.108.40.206 Example: To calculate the average cumulative volume of oxygen produced per minute per gram. The first is from the formation of the enzyme-substrate complex. Governance edit The Board of Trustees executes its governance responsibilities through a chancellor, who serves as the chief executive officer of the System. I will then connect this boiling tube up with essay respiration the manometer, as shown in the diagram.
The enzymes work by lowering this energy, which allows the glucose to be converted to pyruvate during glycolysis, the pyruvate to be converted to Acetyl-CoA during the Link reaction etc. Like pyruvate, this is then decarboxylated and dehydrogenated in several steps, and eventually oxaloacetate is regenerated essay respiration to allow the cycle to start again. In my experiments I am relying on the fact that the maggots will consume air- therefore respiring aerobically, and this will cause the bubble to be pushed towards the maggots. These universities enroll nearly 70,000 students. Board of Trustees edit The Board of Trustees of the University of Alabama is a self-nominating board composed of 15 elected members and one ex officio member. After several minutes I will close both the three-way tap and the screw-clip and make a note of the position of the manometer fluid. I must therefore keep the mass of the maggots constant. This would therefore give you a smaller percentage error. University of Alabama at Birmingham edit Main article: The University of Alabama at Birmingham The University of Alabama at Birmingham (also nationally known as UAB ) is a doctoral, public research university covering 83 blocks in the heart of Alabama's largest city Birmingham, Alabama, USA. If at times they respire without oxygen-.e. The percentage error of any piece of apparatus is calculated by (Error / Reading) x 100, the way to reduce percentage error could be done by making a larger reading-.e.